Download A Brief History of the Netherlands (Brief History) by Paul F State PDF

By Paul F State

Regardless of the country's small measurement, the Netherlands has performed a comparatively huge half within the heritage of trade, executive, paintings, and faith, and it has left an indelible imprint on the entire world's continents. this article offers a normal review of the historical past of the rustic from precedent days onwards.

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That authority, however, had dwindled largely to the prestige that came to the holder of the title “Holy Roman Emperor”; emperors were no longer able even to invest bishops. The imperial crown itself, an elective office, was open to dispute among the local princes, who now wielded the effective power. In the northern Low Countries, the main rulers were the count of Holland-Zeeland, the lord-bishop of Utrecht, the dukes of Brabant and Limburg, and the count (duke from 1339) of Gelderland. Holland emerged as a relatively compact territorial state.

Titles to the dukedom were subsequently awarded to various noble houses, but effective power gradually passed to holders of smaller units of territory. The significance of the title eventually lapsed entirely in the wake of the rising power of feudal lords—dukes and counts—who held smaller units of territory as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. The growth of local autonomy proved inexorable, a growth necessitated to some degree because only leaders located onsite could exercise effective control in managing the resources needed to administer and, most essentially, defend their territories.

Lichtenbergers fought Fresings in Utrecht; Schieringers struggled against Vetkopers in Friesland; Bronkhorsts battled Hekerens in Gelderland and Overijssel; and, most famously remembered in the municipal mayhem, Cods (Cabeljauwen) clashed with Hooks (Hoeks) in Holland. The Cods, who were strongest in the largest towns, backed the ruling elites as partisans of the powerful status quo. The Hooks fought on behalf of those among the populace, namely, the lesser nobles and the poorer townsfolk excluded from any share in government, who sought a voice at the governing table.

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