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These terms (‘butter’, for instance) are called categorematic terms. Other terms, however, like ‘no’ and ‘every’ acquire a definite reference only when standing in relation to categorematic terms, as in the phrases ‘no man’ and ‘every house’. These are called syncategorematic terms. Again, some terms are absolute, in the sense that they signify a thing without reference to any other thing, while other terms are called connotative terms, because, like ‘son’ or ‘father’, they signify an object considered only in relation to some other thing.

If a piece of copper is shaped into a statue, its figure may be called a form; but it is no more than the termination (terminatio) or figure of the copper; it is not a distinct nature. The human soul, however, is a distinct nature. Now, Petrus Aureoli declared that a substantial form is simply the actuation of matter (pura actuatio materiae) and that, together with matter, it composes one simple nature. It follows that if the human soul is a distinct nature and is not simply the actuation of matter, it is not a form in the same way and in the same sense that other forms are forms.

3 4 Theological works by Ockham include the Quodlibeta VII, the Tractatus de Sacramento Altaris or De Corpore Christi (which seems to contain two distinct treatises) and the Tractatus de praedestinatione et de praescientia Dei et de futuris contingentibus. The authenticity of the Centiloquium theologicum or summa de conclusionibus theologicis has not been proved. On the other hand, the arguments adduced to prove that the work is unauthentic do not appear to be conclusive. To Ockham’s Munich period belong among other works the Opus nonaginta dierum, the Compendium errorum Ioannis papae XXII, the Octo quaestiones de potestate papae, the An princeps pro suo succursu, scilicet guerrae, possit recipere bona ecclesiarum, etiam invito papa, the Consultatio de causa matrimoniali and the Dialogus inter magistrum et discipulum de imperatorum et pontificum potestate.

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