By Kenneth E. Iverson
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Sample Inputs for Name and Age Input Predicted Output Actual Output Ray44 44Ray Ray 44 44 Ray Ray 44 44 Ray 44-Ray Ray-44 Think of the standard input as a stream of characters. Regardless of how the user types those characters, the program sees them arrive one by one. (Okay, they arrive in big chunks, by the buffer-load, but that’s a minor implementation detail. ) Thus, the program always maintains the notion of a current position in the stream. The next read operation always starts at that position.
The “back” of a vector is the end, with the highest index. The “front” is the beginning, so back() returns the last element of the vector, and front() returns the first. ) If you want to refer to a specific element, use at(n), where n is a zero-based index, as shown on line 20. The size() function (line 19) returns the number of elements in the vector. Therefore, valid indices range from 0 to size() - 1. When you read C++ programs, you will most likely see square brackets (data[n]) used to access elements of a vector.
Loops sure are fun! What data structure do you think of first when you think of loops? I hope you picked arrays, because that is the subject of the next Exploration. 50 EXPLORATION 9 Arrays and Vectors Now that you understand the basics, it is time to start moving on to more exciting challenges. Let’s write a real program, something nontrivial but still simple enough to master this early in the book. Your job is to write a program that reads integers from the standard input, sorts them into ascending order, and then prints the sorted numbers, one per line.