By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain indications which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and conception of acoustic indications. Chapters deal with the knowledge that animals converse, how the conversation is built and discovered, and the way conversation platforms have tailored and advanced inside species. The e-book will provide examples from a number of species.
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Extra info for Acoustic Communication
For example, the sound reﬂected off the surface can combine with sound from the direct path to form an interference pattern representing the cancellation and summation of the two waves. This phenomenon is referred to as the Lloyd mirror effect and can lead to as much as a 6dB increase in sound pressure (complete summation and doubling of pressure) or a total cancellation of sound pressure (see Jensen et al. 1994). Transmission loss associated with the reﬂection (and absorption) of sound along the bottom is even more complicated than that for the surface because the bottom may vary widely in its composition and layering of different solids.
However, the sex of the animals producing these long, patterned sequences needs to be determined, and both species are vocally active during the summer feeding season, which suggests that not all of this vocal activity is related to breeding (Ljungblad et al. 1998; Croll et al. 2001). 5 presents spectrographic representations of songs for blue, ﬁn, humpback, and bowhead whales. 2. Baleen Whale Calls For simplicity, we refer to sounds other than songs as calls, with the assumption that the sounds are communicative, produced by males and females, and not restricted to the reproductive context.
In humpbacks, a song lasts anywhere from 10 to 45 minutes and is composed of up to 7–8 themes, each consisting of several phrases. The song changes annually, and there is a great deal of intra- and inter-individual variability. In bowheads, the song lasts on the order of a minute. It has as many as two themes, with each one composed from a single phrase. As with humpbacks, bowhead songs change annually, and there is a high degree of variability such that no two songs from the same animal are ever exactly the same.