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Extra info for Advances in Energy Systems and Technology. Volume 3
3. Key Technical Adaptations a. Adjustment for Effective Fracture Length. The simulations of Well N o . 212 showed a strong relationship between production and the orientation of the fracture relative to the lens. A massive fracture perpendicular to the lens can have an effective half-length of only one half of the width of the lens, while one parallel t o the lens may be effective for its full distance. Thus, an expected, effective fracture length must be computed. The general assumption is that the fracture azimuth and the orientation of the lens are randomly related because each is controlled by factors from different geologic periods.
212 well had been perforated in four sand members and three of the sands were fracture treated, as summarized in Table XV. Since the orientation of the hydraulic fractures and the permeability of the Mesaverde sands were u n k n o w n , the reservoir model sought to match the production data, in Fig. 18, by varying the fracture orientation and the formation permeability. The results of these simulations indicate that for Well N o . 09 md, much higher than expected, and the effective fracture half-length is about 200 ft, much shorter than expected.
24. Example costs for 300,000-gal fracture treatment in the tight gas sands. 1 x (Fuel price)] T o complete the financial calculation the costs of royalties, taxes, and overhead need to be considered in computing the discounted cash flow. G. 00/Mcf. A recent N P C study, not completed at this time, estimates that 170-240 Tcf of gas could be recovered from a somewhat larger resource area. These two estimates are compared in Table X V I . 00/Mcf (Tcf) Low technology High technology 110 186 175 238 Potential production rate for high technology (Tcf/yr) 1990 2000 4-5 7-8 2-3 8-9 a Sources: Lewin and Associates (1979): revisions have been made to the 1978 production estimates to reflect lack of R&D outlays toward improved technology.