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The catalyst has many advantages, such as ready access, minimal toxicity, reusability, insensitivity­to atmosphere and moisture. 10 The major advantage of the method resides in the pos‑ sibility of performing Friedel–Crafts acylation at room temperature in a reaction medium that can be kept almost neutral throughout the reaction, acetone being the only co-product. 12 The advantage of using indium trichloride compared with aluminum chloride is represented by its hydrolytic stability and reduced oxophilicity.

6. Mohile, S. , Potdar, M. , and Salunkhe, M. M. 2003. An alternative route to syntheses of aryl keto acids in a chloroaluminate ionic liquid. J. Chem. Res. (S) 650–651. 7. Surette, J. K. , and Singer, R. D. 1996. 1‑Ethyl‑3‑methylimidazolium hologenoaluminate melts as reaction media for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of ferrocene. Chem. Commun. 2753–2754. 8. , and Vol’pin, M. 1993. Direct alkylacylation of arenes and cycloalkanes in the presence of aprotic superacids. J. Chem. , Chem. Commun. 257–258.

11 as protic acid catalyst. Moreover, hydrobromic acid plays a crucial role well in the demethylation of compounds 19. The final 2,4‑dihydroxyacetophe‑ nones 20 can be obtained in 68%–73% yield. 21 Moreover, better results (94% yield) are achieved by using synthon 21 (R = Bn) with both nitrogen atoms pro‑ tected (benzyl protective group for the heterocyclic nitrogen and formyl group for the side chain nitrogen). 12). The topic has been extensively examined in the basic survey by G. A. 12 Chapter 2: Stoichiometric acylations 19 acids or derivatives such as acyl chlorides and esters undergo ring ­closure in the presence of a suitable condensing agent such as sulfuric acid, hydro‑ gen fluoride, polyphosphoric acid, or typical Lewis acids such as alumi‑ num chloride or tin tetrachloride.

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