By Cesare Dosi (auth.), Cesare Dosi (eds.)
Groundwater is endangered and polluted in different methods. Conservation and higher administration of this invisible source could be a key component of sustainable water regulations. this can be very true in components, akin to many Mediterranean areas, that are already uncovered to shortage difficulties and that are prone to event expanding pageant among freshwater makes use of and clients. Agriculture is a crucial consumer of groundwater not just when it comes to abstractions, but additionally when it comes to new release and free up of toxins. Agricultural regulations, routinely directed in the direction of different targets, are commencing to pay extra realization to environmental concerns. even though more beneficial projects are required to lessen the strain upon groundwater assets and to accomplish a greater integration among agricultural and environmental guidelines.
This booklet has been constructed from 3 workshops held as a part of the ecu Concerted motion SAGA, "Sustainable Agricultural Use of Aquifers in Southern Europe: Integration among Agricultural and Water administration rules" (FAIR5-CT97-3673). The Concerted motion and the workshops introduced jointly researchers operating in several yet complementary fields, with a view to get an image of the state-of-the paintings approximately interlinkages among agriculture and groundwater, in addition a serious assessment of other regulatory techniques and coverage tools geared toward enhancing groundwater management.
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Extra resources for Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration Between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management
4). Many modelling studies replace this mixing zone with a sharp front. If, in addition, one adopts the Dupuit assumption of predominantly horizontal flow, the problem of finding the interface may sometimes be solved 46 Chapter 3 in closed form. g. , 1984). The Ghyben-Herzberg ratio can be used to determine the shape and position of the sharp interface under static equilibrium conditions (Sherif and Singh, 1996). 025 g/cm 3 as an average density of seawater, we find that the slope of the sharp interface is 40 times greater than that of the water table.
Portugal: annual rainfall and eva po-transpiration in arid and semi-arid regions Region Alto Douro Sul Tejo Guadiana Sado e Mira Algarve Source: Annual rainfall (mm) Annual rainfall (mm) Annual evapo-transpiration (mm) 683 687 564 659 653 1293 1381 1304 1327 1689 Estrela et al. (1996). The northern regions, thanks to the Alps and to the natural storage capacity provided by glaciers and lakes, enjoy regular and abundant per capita endowment. In eentral and southern Italy, available resourees are mueh lower, seasonal variability of runoffs is at the highest; the National Hydrographie Service (Servizio Idrografieo Nazionale) has issued a map showing that a large part of the south suffers from conseeutive periods of 100-150 days without rain (Massarutto, 1999).
Some hydrologieal processes exhibit eharacteristie length and time scales of eentimeters/minutes, while others act over hundreds of kilometers or thousands of years. Still other processes have no specific correlation or length scale. For instanee, the heterogeneity of the porosity of a laboratory soil eolumn may be charaeterized by its grain size distribution; in small field plots, plant root and earthworm channels may be signifieant in deriving a measure of porosity; for regional aquifers geological fractures and faults beeome important in defining this quantity.